Problems With GED Mathematics

GED learners often have problems with math. GED mathematics is the hardest subject for most people to conquer because it's a different way of thinking and one people don't use as much in their everyday lives. But sometimes problems with math go deeper. A learning disability that prevents you from understanding math is called dyscalculia, and if you have serious problems with GED mathematics, you should consider that it's possible you have dyscalculia.

Dyscalculia is a real difficulty in preparing for the GED exam. If you suspect you have dyscalculia, you should try to get your disability diagnosed. You may qualify for special assistance on the exam, such as using the calculator on both parts of the GED mathematics test or taking frequent breaks. This can really help. Unfortunately, dyscalculia often goes undiagnosed, preventing students from getting the help they need on the test.

There are also things you can do in your studying, too, whether or not you've been diagnosed with dyscalculia. Math is a language of numbers, and to some people its symbolic language doesn't make sense. Try translating math into images or words that you can make more sense of. Break down problems into simple steps. Find out specifically about the logic you need to get from one step to the next in math. Try writing down a problem, and for each step in solving it, write down the logic that's used. Before you can do math quickly, learn to do it very slowly, one step at a time. A lot of people jump from step to step automatically, but it's easy to get lost that way. If you learn what each step means and why it's being done, then you're really understanding.

Students who have trouble with math usually don't get the language of math. What does the math really mean? What's behind the numbers? You might have trouble making connections between math, even something as simple as "5 + 4," and its meaning, i.e. five apples and four oranges, means nine pieces of fruit. If these types of meanings are a difficulty, imagine the difficulty with algebra! It takes some self-evaluation and creative thinking, but math concepts of all kinds can be learned in new ways. Try to make connections to real-life problems and applications. Use objects to understand the math you're looking at, something real that you can see and manipulate. Actual apples and oranges (or pennies, or dice, or toothpicks, or other objects) can help you make sense of math.

Focus on filling in basic math capability (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, fractions, percents, and decimals) and understanding what to do with word problems. If you have a strong foundation in the basics of math, you've got a great start on the GED.

If your problems with math are serious, it might be good to go to find a book on dyscalculia. A lot of these are aimed at children, but the types of exercises you'll find can still help. Browse through your bookstore to see what you find. Just getting out of the way you've been trying to learn and finding a new method, a new way of thinking about math, can help break through the frustration. Trying new techniques is a lot better than repeating the old ones that aren't working.

GED and GED Testing Service are registered trademarks of the American Council on Education (ACE). Use of the GED trademark does not imply support or endorsement by ACE.

Michael Ormsby is the president of The GED Academy and oversees software and curriculum for adult learners and people with educational challenges. For more information, visit Michael can be contacted by email at: or by telephone at 800-460-8150.

Tips For Getting A Degree In Computer Science

Unlike to many other niches, computer science counts to one of the best paid and promising niches today. Because of the large increase in people buying computers and requiring quality services, more and more companies hire specialists in different micro niches such as programming, supervising, managing or support.

But what does all that have to do with obtaining a degree in the niche? Well, computer science is a very competitive market that requires more specialized experts than ever before. With the accumulation of a bachelor's degree a person will not only be estimated higher but it will open many doors for him or her.

It doesn't matter if it takes you 3 or 5 years to obtain a specialized degree in the field because once you have it, many employers will be glad to test your expertise and eventually higher you long term. We all know that it can be extremely difficult to get involved in a computer science degree program, especially if you are working a full time job. Besides, you might have other responsibilities like family, business etc for that you have to take care of.

Anyway, whenever you decide to get involved in a degree program make sure to plan every single aspect in advance. There is no worse thing than starting with a program and not being able to finish it. In fact, attending a 2 year internet course is a long commitment. You might have to give up on other things while you attend online or local classes. There is always a price to pay and therefore you have to make a decision for the long term.

If you think you cannot afford a degree program because you have limited financial resources you can apply for scholarship at your local university. On the other hand, if you don't think you would have sufficient time to visit a local university you should look into online courses.

Online courses tend to be very cost-effective and are mostly a lot cheaper. It is recommended to get the price for a specific degree program from different internet providers to filter the most reasonable and appropriate offer. Make sure to keep note on every offer you get and try to decide which offer would best suit your needs and current circumstances.

All in all, it can be said that there are many possibilities for degree programs. If you want to be more successful in your computer science degree you should definitely advance your education.

Simply click on degree in computer science to read more detailed information. Our computer science degree online website is here to help ambitious individuals to grow in ability and skill.

The Plastic Brain - Fake It Until You Make It

About a decade ago, Philip Martinez was involved in a motorcycle accident in which the nerves in his left hand were destroyed, leading to an amputation. However, after the amputation he was haunted by his amputated hand, as if it still existed, but was immovable and in excruciating pain. He eventually found Dr. V.S. Ramachandran, a neuroscientist at University of California at San Diego, who had been researching the phenomenon Martinez was experiencing - "phantom limbs".

To help amputees deal with their phantom pain, Ramachandran created an ingenious solution called a mirror box, designed to trick the brain into thinking that it is working with the phantom limb. It is an uncapped box with two compartments separated by a vertical mirror. As Martinez placed his good arm into one of the two compartments and imagined that his amputated hand was in the other compartment, from a certain angle the mirror box allowed him to see the reflected image of his good hand, as if his amputated limb was there. As he moved his good hand while looking at the reflected image, he was not only able to "see" the amputated limb, but to feel it as well. This seems almost as magical as a fantasy. In Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, Harry first saw the sorcerer's stone in his pocket through the Mirror of Erised, before he actually found it in his pocket. Similarly, Ramachandran's mirror box allows someone to see what they want to happen before their brain actually makes it happen.

At first, Martinez felt that the phantom limb was unfrozen and moving again only when looking at the reflection; when he closed his eyes, the painful sensation returned. After four weeks of working with the box for ten minutes a day, the seemingly permanent pain was cured. The mirror box had caused the brain to believe that the nonexistent limb had begun working again, relieving the pain and uncomfortable sensation. The brain had rewired itself - the body faked it until the brain made it.

Neuroplasticity is the characteristic of the brain that allows it to adapt, rewire, and change its structure, similar to the ability of plastic to mold and change shape. The plastic brain defies the long standing theory that brains, especially adult brains, are rigid structures.

In the past, neurologists did many studies to identify which part of the brain controls which body function or action, also known as brain mapping. The previously accepted belief was that these brain maps, once established during childhood, could never be changed; a particular area of the adult brain can control only a certain part of the body so that all regions of brain maps were immutable. It would be as if the boundaries of countries had been permanently established since the beginning of time. However, the discoveries of neuroplasticity in the early 1970's led to an entirely new view- brain maps can expand, diminish, and become more specific to certain sensory inputs and motor functions. Ramachandran witnessed changes in brain maps when he scratched the cheek of a patient experiencing phantom pain. The patient not only felt the scratch in his cheek, but in the phantom limb as well. Confirmed through brain imaging, Ramachandran concluded that the limb's brain map had meshed with the cheek's brain map. Like an emperor with an avid desire to gain territory, the cheek's map was encroaching on the limb's map.

Before designing the*illusory mirror box, Ramachandran uncovered the brain map of phantom limbs. He observed that many amputated patients had the limb in a sling before amputation, which caused the brain map to adapt to the "frozen" state of the limb. From a healthy limb, the brain receives motor and sensory outputs signaling the completion of an action, however, after a limb is amputated, the brain no longer receives those messages. The brain therefore continues to think that the limb is frozen because it was not signaled otherwise. If a tree fell in a forest but no one was there to hear the sound, did the tree really make a sound? Was the limb really amputated if the brain was not told so? According to the brain map, the limb was still there, but because it was not responding, the brain pushed harder and harder to try and receive an output signal, leading to excruciating "phantom" pain. The knowledge of changing brain maps combined with the identification of the phantom map, led to the cure for phantom pain.

Aside from the mirror box, another "trick" to change the brain is visualization. Visualization has gained popularity as an alternative way to improve any skill when unable to practice, and has now been proven scientifically through neuroplasticity. Scientist Pascual - Leone of Harvard Medical School studied two groups of people, those who physically practiced the piano, and those who simply imagined practicing the piano. The brains of both groups of people were constantly mapped over the same intervals and showed similar changes. The group who simply imagined playing the piano was able to play almost nearly as well as the group with physical practice, and only needed one physical practice session to catch up. The repetitive imagination of an action strengthens the neuronal connections of that action similar to the way in which physical practice does, resulting in physical improvement.

When I used to train for competitive tennis and was learning a new shot, my coach would say "Imagine this shot in perfect detail several times and it will come more easily to you." I did not appreciate the advice he gave me until now. "Fake it until you make it" seems to have the potential to help anyone with anything, whether it is through the mirror box or visualization. Neuroplasticity is introducing magic into the world of science, like a sprinkle of Tinkerbell's pixie dust.

The Discovery of the Nucleus

The word atom is no longer being used in its correct context, originally it came from early Greek term 'atomos' to translate to mean 'indivisible'. Thanks to a discovery by British Physicist/Chemist Ernst Rutherford in 1909, this idea began to break down as science started to take a look*inside the so-called indivisible atom.

Rutherford began his 'gold foil experiment' in the midst of the JJ Thomson 'Plum Pudding' stage of atomic theories. The experiment involved directing a radioactive source emitting alpha-particles towards gold foil. The gold foil was used because it is very thin so the target is nearly a line of atoms. The area was surrounded by a zinc sulphide screen which will give off a flash of light when hit by an alpha particle. Essentially, the experiment was designed to find out where the alpha particles went after colliding with the nucleus.

The energy levels of the alpha particles were around 6,000,000 eV compared to 0.02 eV of the nearly stationary gold atoms. Because of this the pattern on the detector was fairly unremarkable, most of the alpha particles passed through the gold atoms and whenever an alpha particle struck a gold atom, it simply moved it out of the way. There were however occasional exceptions, 1 in 10,000 alpha particles were deflected by over 90áµ’, these were completely unexplainable with the current impression of the atom.

Using Coulomb's Law (strength of force between two charged particles is inversely proportional to their distance apart squared), Rutherford's team found that the radius between the positive alpha particle and the positive force deflecting it must have been smaller than the radius of the atom in order to achieve the 300N repulsive force required to deflect it by over 90áµ’.

This calculation was extremely significant, it meant that for a neutral gold foil atom, there must be a small, concentrated area of positivity which is surrounded by negativity. Since the electron had already been discovered by Thomson at the end of the 19th century, they must be orbiting the centered positivity, thus the nucleus was born.

This was paradigm changing, the whole concept of the atom was changed and nuclear physics was now well under way, as with many brilliant scientific discoveries it just led to more questions which needed to be answered;

Why don't the electrons and nucleus attract each other and merge? What is keeping the positive subatomic particles together?

These questions needed an answer if the Rutherford 'Nuclear' model of the atom was to be accepted, which kick started nuclear physics and a new dawn for atomic discovery.

A-Level Science is a free resource for Chemistry, Biology, Physics and Psychology to a standard understandable for most A-Level Students. 100% free and no fuss,

Time Travel Model of Quantum Mechanics

The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics is baffling, while the many-worlds interpretation is unrealistic. The time travel model attempts to provide a comprehensible explanation.

In this model we assume that the presence of a particle causes vibrations in the time coordinate of spacetime. The wave function may be identified with the amplitude of these temporal vibrations. The square of the wave function is proportional to the strength of these vibrations and gives the likelihood of finding a particle in the vicinity.

The time waves at present overlap the time waves of a moment ago, and so on, so that a particle becomes spread out over all the spacetime between the last interaction and all possible points of the next interaction. If a particle's time coordinate is uncertain, its position and momentum are also uncertain.

When an interaction occurs, the particle is no longer available for time travel and the wave function collapses backward in time to the point of the last interaction. Since we cannot observe the past, the collapse appears instantaneous. The collapse is itself not observable, so nothing observable changes in the past.

The Schrodinger equation states that the frequency of temporal vibration is proportional to the energy. Its complex nature is a mathematical way of describing vibrations. The many-dimensional nature of the wave function is a consequence of the Hamiltonian formulation. There is no implication that the world is actually complex or many dimensional.

The relativity of simultaneity causes a uniform vibration to become a traveling wave when seen from a moving coordinate system, which is why the momentum is obtained by taking the spatial derivative of the wave function.

The antisymmetric Fermi statistics of the wave function under exchange of a pair of identical fermions is a way of stating that the particles cannot occupy the same space at the same time. If all fundamental particles are spin one-half rishon fermions, then the symmetric Bose statistics are simply obtained by exchanging rishons two pairs at a time.

Let us consider two classic examples. In the two-slit experiment, a particle may go through one slit, then back in time, then through the other slit. In the case of two quantum entangled particles, when one is observed, the wave function for that orientation collapses backward in time, leaving only the wave function for the opposite orientation.

If a time wave curved around into a circle much smaller than its wavelength, the entire whirl would appear to oscillate back and forth in time. The whirl could not dissipate due to conservation of energy and angular momentum, or other quantum numbers. We suggest that these whirls are in fact the rishons. It is also a law of nature that a rishon cannot disappear unless it meets its antirishon. This model explains how a particle can produce time waves: particles simply are trapped time waves.

The observed intrinsic spin of a rishon is far greater than what could be possessed by a small rotating mass. In our model, the internal rotational phase velocity of the time waves may be much greater than the speed of light, since no information is conveyed. This may explain how a rishon can have a large angular momentum but little mass. Since a rishon is a cloud of time waves, it would have eigenstates of angular momentum. When its angular momentum (or energy) is measured, one would always find it to be an eigenstate, in accord with general principles of quantum mechanics. This cannot be understood if a rishon is viewed as a point particle.

The V rishon may be the lowest possible energy state, while the T rishon may be the highest possible energy state, perhaps because the phase velocity has slowed down to the speed of light. Any slight instability would cause intermediate states to gain or lose energy and move toward one extreme or the other. This may explain why there are just two stable rishons, light and heavy. The bare mass may be much larger than the observed mass, due to renormalization. Unfortunately it is not known how to calculate this, so hard numbers cannot be given.

The large spin of a rishon eliminates the spherically symmetric S states, leaving the three P states to correspond with the three colors. The T rishon constantly emits and absorbs a cloud of V anti-V particles, corresponding with gluons and photons as the pair carries net color or not. The V rishon does not have enough mass to do this. The weak force arises from the transfer of a group of rishons, the W particle. Small temporal vibrations of a particle could be considered quantum gravity, which might help stabilize the particle. These vibrations might also cause a large-scale distortion of spacetime, similar to thermal expansion. We would perceive this distortion as classical gravity. The Planck equation simply states that this distortion, which we call gravity, mass, or energy is proportional to the frequency of a particle.

A rishon might have a polar temporal field caused by the circular motion of time waves, analogous to a magnetic field. Particles would be ejected preferentially along the direction of this field, because time flows in that direction, thus violating parity. The temporal field would be aligned with or against the direction of external time, corresponding to rishons or antirishons. Because of the time difference, the two would have slightly different reaction rates, producing an excess of hydrogen over antihydrogen, which have the same rishonic content. The photon and gluon are symmetric with respect to matter and antimatter, but the W is not, so only the weak force violates parity.

Time dilation and the relativity of rimultaneity are features of special relativity, while in general relativity mass influences the flow of time and gravitational radiation consists in part of time waves. Therefore our concept of time waves has some precedent. Quantum mechanics and general relativity both describe disturbances of spacetime and together provide a complete picture. Everything can be explained as waves, whirls, or bends in spacetime.

When a particle interacts, it stops time-travelling into the past, because the coherence of the time waves is broken. The wave function collapses, or disappears, backward in time. It is as though the wave function never existed at all, so it vanishes instantaneously in all frames, in agreement with the fundamental principle of relativity, that there is no preferred frame.

In the rishon model, all neutral matter has equal amounts of T and anti-T rishons. Under sufficient pressure, theses would be forced together and annihilate, so matter would convert to photons or neutrinos and escape before a naked singularity could form, or in a big crunch.

The collapse of a wave function is an irreversible process, so quantum mechanics does not conserve information, in a black hole, or anywhere else. Gravity is a curvature of spacetime, so the need for gravitons is questionable.

In the rishon model, a photon consists of a V anti-V pair, so, like the neutrino, it might have a small rest mass.

If the wavelength of a rishon's internal time wave is smaller than the rishon, the rishon would still oscillate in time, but in a more complicated way, perhaps giving rise to the effects associated with spin.

The P states mentioned above are conjectured to be states of intrinsic spin having spin one-half.

The photon and vector bosons have different masses because they are made of different rishons. Symmetry breaking is not needed.

Particles are disturbances in spacetime and according to general relativity would therefore have mass. The Higgs mechanism is not needed.

It would be of great interest to discover and study the equations which govern the structure of the rishons.

Jay Daniel Shelton attended the University of British Columbia, where he received a Masters degree in Physics. He is a independent investigator and resides in Fruita, Colorado.

Planet Dinosaur

Planet Dinosaur - New Documentary Series

It was last year that the BBC (British Broadcasting Company) announced plans to collaborate with a number of other broadcasters and partners to produce a new documentary series focusing on dinosaurs. In 1997, the BBC produced the seminal "Walking with Dinosaurs" television series and this six-part documentary series went on to become the most commercially successful of all BBC programmes to date. Over the last two years or so, the BBC and its partners have been working on a follow-up television series, one that builds on the "Walking with Dinosaurs" legacy and shows some of the latest findings and research into the Dinosauria by palaeontologists.

The new documentary series entitled "Planet Dinosaur" utilises the very latest computer generated images and graphics plus some of the techniques that were pioneered by the early dinosaur themed programmes. But why a new television show devoted to dinosaurs? The answer is quite simple, the huge sums generated by the first series has had a lot to do with it, as have the new dinosaur discoveries that have taken place over the thirteen or so years after "Walking with Dinosaurs". Interestingly, with the development of new research methods, the revision of dinosaur cladistics and the opening up of new parts of the world to explore such as eastern Europe, northern China and Angola, more discoveries about dinosaurs have been made in the last decade than in the preceding one hundred years.

Planet Dinosaur will take the same format as the previous BBC dinosaur series. It will consist of six half hour programmes and it will be supported by a book release and a DVD. We have received a request to review the book when it comes out, the front cover features our old friend Spinosaurus and the DVD will also have a similar cover.

Planet Dinosaur - Programme Details

This new television series focuses on prehistoric animals that lived during the Jurassic and the Cretaceous geological periods. The Triassic Period does not really get a look in. The opening episode is called "Lost World" and takes viewers to North Africa in the early part of the Cretaceous. Thhs programme explores the coastal ecosystem that was dominated by two apex predators, namely the huge meat-eater Carcharodontosaurus, a relative of the better-known predator Allosaurus from the Late Jurassic. The second apex predator is Spinosaurus, arguably the largest Theropod known to science, with an estimated length in excess of seventeen metres. Scientists have postulated that this particular dinosaur was a specialist fish-eater, filling the niche that is filled today by the extant Grizzly Bear.

The second episode, due to air a week after the first is entitled "Feathered Dinosaurs" and focuses on the amazing feathered dinosaur discoveries from Liaoning Province in northern China. Episode three concerns the emergence of the super-predators during the last years of the Cretaceous. This is the part of the documentary series that features the Tyrannosaurs along with their southern hemisphere cousins the Abelisaurids - bizarre, light-skulled predators.

Over the rest of the six-part series new prehistoric animal discoveries will be covered such as the giant marine reptile known as "Predator X". The huge Cretaceous crocodile Sarcosuchus (Sarcosuchus imperator) an animal capable of attacking large dinosaurs. The television programmes are certainly going to be a highlight of the autumn schedule and we look forward to reviewing more of the series.

Everything Dinosaur is run by parents, teachers and real dinosaur experts. Visit our website to view the very latest dinosaur and prehistoric animal models.

To learn more about the products and services we offer at Everything Dinosaur visit Everything Dinosaur

The Science and Software of the ATM

When you insert you credit or debit card in an ATM, you set off a chain of events, commands and procedures that take mere seconds to complete, and give you instant access to your own money. But whether you're withdrawing cash, checking your balance, or doing something a little different like topping up a pay-as-you-go mobile phone, the ATM has to work just has hard to ensure that you are given what you requested. But what exactly goes on inside the ATM while you wait patiently outside? Here is a very short explanation.

All ATMs work on the same basic principle and use similar software to give the consumer what they want, and for a number of ATMs, this software is made up of three different products: Platforms, Applications and Management Servers.

The Platform is part of a family that provides the foundations for developing custom applications for all types of ATMs, including kiosks and branch teller stations. This software provides a developer with everything they need to create applications for ATMs and kiosk systems.

The application software gives the ATM complete functionality and can also be modified and tailored for specific needs by banks. This means that it can enable banks to add extra features, services and enable customers to complete extra transactions for customers.

Management Server
The Management Server is a remote management solution. It provides a very extensive range of ATM Management features in one place, which historically could only be provided by a number of separate systems, this enables it to provide secure management straight to every ATM or other kiosk in the network.

Another ATM management software that is less commonly used in the majority of ATMs is SafetyPIN software. As you might imagine, this software was created and installed to protect the user from fraud, and as such it is designed to alert the authorities, namely the police, of a forced cash withdrawal. The way this works is that a customer enters their PIN or Personal Identification Number in the wrong order, such as backwards when forced to do so. However, while this system dates back to 1986, when former US police officer proposed it in Congress, the system has not gathered a lot of support, and as such, it is only available on a handful of ATMs in a handful of places, contrary to popular belief, this software is not in place on ATMs around the world.

While there is a lot more to ATM software than meets the eye, it can be quite complicated to explain to people who are unfamiliar with technology, or someone who has never worked in software development. However, if you really want to know more about ATM software, then the internet is the best place to start, so type the phrase into a search engine to begin your search journey, and see what other information you can find out.

Harvey McEwan writes to offer information and advice on a variety of areas, from technology to holiday destinations. Read through Harvey's other articles here to find out more.

Fingerprinting in Forensic Science

Fingerprints collected from a crime scene, or from items of evidence from a crime, can be used in forensic science to identify suspects, victims and other persons who touched the surface in question. Fingerprint identification emerged as an important system within various police agencies in the late 19th century. This system replaced anthropometric measurements as a more reliable method for identifying persons having a prior record, often under an alias name, in a criminal record repository. The science of fingerprint identification stands out among all other forensic sciences for many reasons because of its superiority and reliability.

Worldwide, fingerprinting has served all governments during the past 100 years to provide accurate identification of criminals. No two fingerprints have ever been found alike in the billions of human and automated computer comparisons. Fingerprints have become the very basis for criminal history foundation at almost every police agency.

The first forensic professional organization, the International Association for Identification (IAI), was established in 1915. It established the first professional certification program for forensic scientists, the IAI's Certified Latent Print Examiner program in 1977, issuing certification to those meeting stringent criteria and revoking certification for serious errors such as erroneous identifications.

Fingerprints remain the most commonly used forensic evidence the world over. In most jurisdictions, fingerprint examination cases outnumber all other forensic examination casework combined. It continues to expand as the premier method for identifying persons, with tens of thousands of persons added to fingerprint repositories daily in America alone - far outdistancing similar databases in growth. Fingerprinting has outperformed DNA and all other human identification systems to identify more murderers, rapists and other serious offenders (fingerprints solve ten times more unknown suspect cases than DNA in most jurisdictions).

Although some reporters and authors claim that fingerprints have long enjoyed a mystique of infallibility, the opposite is true. Fingerprint identification was the first forensic discipline in 1977 to formally institute a professional certification program for individual experts, including a procedure for decertifying those making any investigative errors. Other forensic disciplines later followed suit in establishing certification programs whereby certifications could be revoked for any error found.

Fingerprint identifications lead to far more positive identifications of persons worldwide daily than any other human identification procedure. The American federal government alone effects positive identification of over 70,000 persons. A large percentage of the identifications, approximately 92% of US Visit identifications, are affected in lights-out, no human involved computer identification process with 100% accuracy based on only two fingerprints.

Forensic Science [] provides detailed information on Forensic Science, Forensic Science Degrees, Forensic Science Colleges, Forensic Science Schools and more. Forensic Science is affiliated with Biotechnology Careers [].