Biology, Science and Nature Books

Astronomy and Cosmology

Cosmology is the name given to a range of natural sciences, including both physics and astronomy that intends to provide an explanation for how the universe works as an integrated entity. Over the centuries, since the Pythagoreans in Greece during the 6th century BC considered the possibility that Earth was spherical, cosmology has come a long way and has integrated a variety of different fields of science.

Cosmology evolved from the observation of these Greeks who interpreted the natural laws of the heavenly bodies from which, eventually, the Ptolemaic model developed during the second century AD. Centuries later, during the 16th century, the Copernican system further developed the theories surrounding astronomy and cosmology - followed, in the 20th century, by the theories of special relativity and Albert Einstein's Theory of General Relativity. Overall, however, the case for cosmology states that the laws of physics work the same everywhere and that there is homogeneity throughout the universe.

'The Holographic Universe', written by Michael Talbot, tells its story in two parts: the first part devotes 55 pages to discussing David Bohm's holographic model of the universe - simplified into everyday language by Talbot. The second part of the book delves into events of the paranormal while, at the same time, attempting to rationalise the holographic model. Talbot introduces the reader to Karl Pribram as well as the philosophies of David Bohm.


Chemistry and biochemistry often go hand-in-hand, existing in parallel with other scientific disciplines such as dietetics [the science of food]. McCance and Widdowson, who produce 'The Composition of Foods' summarises food composition tables and updates much in the way of nutrition as a science. The foreword to the 6th edition has been written by Sir John Krebs while the actual volume itself provides an invaluable source of reference to dieticians and nutritionists the world over.

Meanwhile,'Principles of Biochemistry' by Nelson D has been described as a 'modern approach to biochemistry'. Personally, one of the best biochemistry books I have ever encountered was that written by Patterson - now, sadly, long since out of print. I attribute my successful pass in the biochemistry exams to the presence of Patterson which, by the time I had finished with it, was particularly dog-eared! Nelson D's 'Principles of Biochemistry' really is the next best thing to Patterson and a worthy successor.

Earth Sciences and Geography

Earth sciences are a catch-all term covering a different range of natural sciences from those mentioned above. These relate to the study of the earth and how different parts of it are interlinked to produce that homogenous whole that is the classic feature of the scientific world. If you are interested in the world around you then you may be interested in a lovely book by Gavin Pretor-Pinney. This book 'The Cloud Collector's Handbook' is full of charming pictures, below which you will find a short description of each cloud and space for you to rebord your own sightings. It certainly gives a new connotation to having your head in the clouds!


If you think about it, there is all the difference in the world between someone who loves school and somebody who loves to learn: it doesn't necessarily follow that, if you love to learn, then you must enjoy school. Education, however, is all about learning for the sheer pleasure of gaining new information. This learning may or may not be associated with school: it can even cover any subject. Evidence of this can be seen in Richard Dawkins' book 'The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution'.

Dawkins goes about educating his readers, explaining to them how fossils can be dated accurately, all about plate tectonics etc, before going into the details of how these may be linked with the global distribution of plants and animals and the effects changes in these physical elements can have on them. Dawkins, whilst making it clear that he is aware [and who could not be?] of the great debate on creation v evolution, doesn't get drawn into the minutiae surrounding this eternal dispute.

Engineering and Technology

One book that I simply have to recommend is a fantastic book written by Jo Marchant. You will find it in our Science and Nature section under the heading of Engineering and Technology. The first thing to say is that this is not some dry and boring technical tome. This book relates the story behind a particularly ancient Greek artefact and what it took to decode its hidden mysteries. The book is called 'Decoding the Heavens: Solving the Mystery of the World's First Computer'. I wish Jo Marchant had found a more intriguing title for her book because this title really doesn't do this book justice.

The book relates the story of the Antikythera Mechanism which has been shown to have amazing capabilities as an astronomical calculator: scientists believe its complexity was at least 1500 years before its time. The Antikythera Mechanism artifact is a good 2,000 years old and was found during a dive in 1901. Scientists have been attempting to unravel its secrets ever since. So, if it's a true-life mystery you are interested, or a book that's a bit different I would strongly recommend this well-written and interesting book of Jo Marchant's.

There are innumerable other sub-genres to be found within our Science and Nature section, covering quite an array of subjects. If you are a fan of the border collie, Barbara Sykes writes a delightful treatise on 'Understanding Border Collies'. This is an excellent book written by somebody who really does understand the intricacies that go to make up this breed of dog and is an absolute 'must have' for all the lovers of border collies out there. Changing from dogs to elephants, I would certainly recommend 'The Elephant Whisperer: Learning about Life, Loyalty and Freedom from a Remarkable Herd of Elephants' - it will really pull on your heartstrings then have you howling with laughter! Check out all the other options within this section - you will probably amaze yourself at the treasure trove of titles hidden within our web pages!

Books on science and nature.

Strength Science

I remember when I first heard the saying 5 years ago at a clinic that if you read for one hour every single day in your field, you will be one of the world's leading experts in 7 years. I am not claiming to be one of the world's leading experts yet, but the main thing I did take away from that thought was to become a serious student of the iron game. I have learned to become more astute at noticing little things that work and all of the things that are a waste of time. I have been pretty darn diligent about reading an hour every day from strength training books to self-improvement to business and marketing books. I have been extremely busy lately with the opening of my new facility, my wedding approaching and just buying our first house together. With that said, there is so much information that I want to convey since it's been over a month since I have had the chance to write an article that I am going to be jumping around quite a bit. "Absorb what is useful and discard the rest" via Alwyn Cosgrove via Bruce Lee.

    * After reading Dinosaur Training by Brooks Kubik, I made the decision to incorporate my Fat Gripz into almost all pressing or pulling movements. When people ask me how they work, I explain how innervated the hands are with the central nervous system and if we train hand strength, the nervous system will become more efficient. But you will also notice that when you use fat grips on an exercise like the bench, you wrists and shoulders feel a little unstable. Yes, you are using stabilizing muscles, but I believe the more important effect is the stress and adaptation to your tendons and ligaments. This is where the true strength is built. I got a PR this week with 355 in the bench and it went up pretty easy. This is up about 30 pounds since the winter and the only difference in my training has been to incorporate Fat Gripz.

    * Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Lifting parallels life in so many ways, we learn to push ourselves harder than we thought possible, we eventually learn to succeed that we need to surround ourselves by other like-minded individuals. It has also been my experience that any of the big dogs in the Iron Game are very driven to succeed in life. This is where Newton's Law comes in. If you put in the dog work, late nights and blood sweat and tears, the results will come down the road. This is a principle that too many people don't understand. If you create and make all that ACTION, you will get the investment of that time ten-fold in success. This can be used for lifting and life.

    * The quads are critical to train to remain injury free. The quads provide the breaking forces when the front leg hits the ground during sprinting. The leg is never fully extended during sprinting because then you would be moving vertically and not horizontally. In particular, the VMO is critical as it affects knee tracking. The best way to hammer these guys is through movements such as the lunge, step up, rear foot elevated split squat or speed skater squats.

    * When I get my high school athletes telling me their weight has hit a plateau, I have them do two things. First, I have them do a shake that has 970 calories and 75 grams of protein in it 2x per day. Second, I have them do a five days of 80 grams of glutamine per day on those days. This can be done every 2-3 months. I got this idea from Charles Poliquin. It helps to heal the stomach lining, which will lead to better nutrient absorption. All of my guys that have done this have gained 3-6 pounds of lean weight and kept it on after the week.

    * Sleep is king. I am a hypocrite when it comes to this as I always fall back into the trap of burning the candle late night to get more work done. However, when I presented at a clinic recently, a fellow presenter was from the U.S. Navy and his findings were very awakening. He said if the brain is awake for 17 or more hours for 3 straight days, it functions as if it were intoxicated and he even showed images of a brain with 8 hours of sleep. Vs. 6 hours of sleep. The 6 hour brain had significantly less blood flow than the 8 hour one. He also spoke of the importance of recovery. He was very fortunate to have an Omega Wave machine to know when his guys were about to hit bottom. He did say that a de-load week should be used every 4 weeks or so and this is also what Buddy Morris suggested when I looked back at one of his presentations. Sleep and recover to grow!

Kyle Newell is a strength and conditioning specialist (CSCS) located in New Jersey. He specializes in body transformation and sport specific conditioning. Kyle is pursuing his master's degree in exercise science through the University of Texas Pan American. Kyle is also a competitive bodybuilder in addition to being a Certified Sports Nutritionist (CISSN). Kyle is available for online consulting. Just remember that proximity has nothing to do with expertise. Kyle can be reached through his website at

Rejuvenating Science Majors

Recently, the number of graduates holding science related majors decreased about 27% according to a survey done by the National Science Board. We're seeing this as the trend in science related subjects such as computer science, technology, math, engineering, and laboratory science. We sought out to find out why.

It's an inspirational thought. The harder you work, the greater rewards you receive. For many, science is fun, but for the majority of us right brain-ers, science involves a lot of hard work and analysis. Educators and politicians have been up in arms about educational reform. Well, here's a thought. How do we rejuvenate science as not only a discipline and industry, but attract more engineers, programmers, mathematicians, chemists, analysts? What kind of impact will a slowed technology and science industry have on the global race? Surely, it won't do America any good seeing to as how Asia and Russia's schence industries are booming with innovation and technological advances as we speak. To make things worse, America isn't looking to great compared to its global rivals when our students are performing poorly in schools when it comes to math and science.

Recently, Obama called to industry groups and college students to encourage more growth in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) industries. But we think the way to really rejuvenate the science system is start from the bottom and build up. Science and math must be built upon information learned in previous education. One doesn't just become a science nerd in a year. So we propose classrooms from kindergarten through high school level a crucial time period to build a foundation for strong STEM skills. If students during this time period receive a solid basis in science and math they may feel greater compelled and encouraged to stick with it during college and onwards.

Making science and math fun to learn is the only way to keep innovation alive. We must educate the upcoming generation so that great changes may occur. Let's face it, no one likes to balance equations, they want hands on learning and real world applications to science and math. Middle and high school students have reported that they are learning the most and having the most fun with it-while actively testing out Newton's first law of motion, or being able to apply chemistry and math to something relevant to their lives. These subjects just aren't appealing if learnt through textbooks only. In college it is different. Not only are these classes dry, but overpacked, and very difficult to get an A. Turns out, calculus, and science classes are usually the "weed-out" classes and rather than encouraging students to enter the medical or science field, these weed-out classes are designed to keep students away. Low grades are the #1 cause in deterring students from pursuing a STEM related career.

So, how can reinvigorate the science discipline? Another way is to offer accredited online courses in which students can better their understanding of difficult science and math courses that would otherwise scare them away from pursuing engineering or pre-medical careers. On their own time and online is a much more supportive and relaxed way of learning an otherwise very difficult subject. Online science degrees may very well make a large influence and impact on science and the way we learn scientific concepts.

Free-lance writer with a passion for Writing and Research.
Amanda Rodriguez
Accredited Science Courses Online

Having Fun With Science

Not enough people have fun with science. It may be because of some preconceived notions that science is boring or hard, or complicated, or for those who are really smart. What many don't realize however is that some of our aversions towards things can be passed down to our children. For example, if all a child hears is that math is hard or that you hate doing math, they may also get the idea that it is hard and they should hate it. As a result, when they take up math in school, they do end up finding hard and hating it.

This can also happen with science, and it is for this reason that parents are encouraged to have fun with science at home even while their children are very young. In fact if they begin while their children are young then their children will likely see science as a fun and easy subject that can be done anywhere. This of course is true because science is found in almost everything we do and in everything around us.

Don't be worried about not being able to pull off having fun with science. When your children are young, scientific concepts are pretty simple, and the little fun experiments that can be done are very easy. What you want to achieve is giving them a good attitude towards science and school, and this is definitely one way to do that, even if the projects are easy.

Start by having a sbhedule of when you can have fun with science. Maybe it's every evening before preparing dinner, every Saturday and Sunday morning, or whatever schedule works best for both you and your child. Setting it up like a play date, and making it something your child will look forward to will really change their attitude towards the subject. Plus, it's a good way to spend time and bond with your children.

Next, figure out what they're learning in science class or what they will be learning, and start with those topics. You will find many easy projects online that you can have fun with science with, and most of the materials these projects will require are already found in your home! Things like making a model eardrum, your own air freshener, or a backyard sun dial in the first or second grade are all fun and easy projects that touch on scientific topics and will help your child understand their science concepts well while having fun with science at home. That will definitely give them an open mind towards the subject, and it will become one less subject you'll have to worry about when it comes to your child's report cards!

Don't know what your kids are learning at their grade level? Need ideas for science experiments or projects? Get everything you need here at Amazing Science Discovery.

Basic School Science and Lab Equipment

Two major considerations need to be taken into account when equipping a high school science or biology laboratory. The first is the curriculum and what experiments need to be demonstrated and the second is how many children will be in each class.

It is generally desirable to have no more than two or three students using each set of equipment. There should also be enough clean beakers, etc, so that time is not wasted in the short time allotted to the experiment by having to re-wash and clean equipment.

While there may be certain items of equipment unique to some of the experiments that the students will cover in the year, there are some basic items that you will find in virtually every school science laboratory.

Every laboratory should be close to emergency washing and even showering facilities. In addition, the lab should be equipped with an eyewash station.

Then there are the safety procedures that the teacher should be familiar with, as well as all safety equipment that would be necessary for himself and for each student. These include safety glasses, appropriate gloves when necessary for some experiments, lab coats to protect clothing and fire extinguishing equipment for all types of fires likely to occur.

The glassware that is normally part of a laboratory includes:

* Test tubes and graduated cylinders.
* Beakers, graduated in 50ml to 400ml capacities.
* Flasks of varying types, such as Florance flasks with rounded bottoms for heating substances, graduated Erlenmeyer flasks, Filter flasks with and without vacuum connections and/or taps. Volumetric flasks have a precise graduation mark for a specific amount of whatever substance is being measured.
* Pipettes; these come in single graduation for delivering one exact volume, called a Volumetric pipette. Then you get graduated pipettes which can hold different volumes of liquid, called a Mohr pipette.
* To go with the pipettes you get pipette bulbs or pipette fillers for sucking liquids into the pipettes.
* There are evaporating dishes and watch glasses that do the same things, but in much smaller quantities.
* Funnels and filter funnels.
* Stirring rods and chemical spoons.

Apart from the various items of graduated glassware, other measurements need to be taken as well. Electronic scales and balances are used to find out mass. There are a number of electronic instruments available for measuring dimensions, pH and moisture, among those things that may be relevant to the students' experiments.

Bunsen burners are used in almost every school laboratory, and all the paraphernalia that goes with them, such as hoses, ring stands, a variety of clamps and supports, and wire gauze.

Other equipment includes crucibles with tongs, a variety of racks for test tubes and flasks, pestles and mortars, and stoppers of all kinds with and without holes for glass tubing.

Then you need the cleaning brushes and other equipment and appropriate cleaning agents for cleaning the laboratory apparatus.

Many school laboratories make use of microscopes and computers as well, depending on what experiments they are covering.

For Laboratory Supplies

9 Computer Science Programs

The following computer schools' programs are considered to be the top 10 computer science programs in the nation, in no particular order:

1. California Institute of Technology: Caltech is considered one of the top computer-science-programs because the curriculum is flexible to accommodate many educational and career goals, with numerous research options in the field.

2. Carnegie Mellon University: This is one of the best computer science-programs because the curriculum is broad, ranging from theory to design to programming, with plenty of research opportunities and many specialized undergraduate and graduate degree options.

3. Cornell University: The computer-science-programs at this prestigious university are found in the college of arts and sciences as well as the college of engineering, with options for traditional computer-science and studies in artificial intelligence, computer graphics, computational biology, etc.

4. Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT has a name synonymous with technology, mathematics and the sciences with opportunities for lab work and networking with experts in the field.

5. Princeton University: This is not only one of the top computer-science programs, but one of the top schools in the country period. Programs include computational science, languages, programming languages, systems, theory and electives including computational biology, graphics, media and security.

6. Stanford University: This is one of the most diverse computer science-programs with curriculum ranging from robotics and AI to more traditional theories and clinical practice in nine specialized tracks requiring research projects within the field.

7. University of California-Berkeley: UC Berkeley's Electrical Engineering and Computer-Sciences department is known for using knowledge and technology to understand the human body and to solve problems through various projects.

8. University of Illinois-Urbana-Champaign: This school's computer science-program has several important entrepreneurial leaders among its alumni. Specializations include computer-science, math and computer-science, and statistics and computer-science.

9. University of Washington: This is considered one of the best computer-science*programs because of its award winning faculty and successful alumni.

Find the perfect Computer School today and start your path to a rewarding career.

To know more about computer science degrees offered at various computer schools visit

The Science of Green Coffee

Green Coffee is deservedly gaining increased attention for its potential to aid in weight loss. What many people may not realise, is that this coffee is underpinned by science and therefore yields many benefits, but should be taken as directed for best results.

How does it work?
Because this coffee is a natural antioxidant, it protects the body from free radicals. Free radicals have been proven to be linked with chronic diseases such as: heart disease, cancer and arteriosclerosis as well as accelerated ageing. It reduces appetite and increases the body's capacity to use stored fat and transfer it to energy. When hunger is reduced, a person is more likely to eat smaller meals and smaller portions, eat more healthily and lead a lifestyle that is all the more healthy. Added to this, it frequently raises a person's desire for water, resulting in a more hydrated and effectively functioning body.

So, is it necessary to drink water?
Even when they are not consuming any coffee, all people should drink plentiful amounts of water. Those who are enjoying the coffee should drink at least eight glasses of water per day. This coffee acts as a detoxifier, so the more water that is consumed the more readily and effectively toxins will be flushed out of the system.

What is the difference between Green Coffee Pure Black and Green Coffee 800?
Green Coffee Pure Black, as its name suggests, is made up of more coffee than Green Coffee 800. When drinking Pure Black, the option to add milk and/or sugar is left to the individual, whereas Coffee 800 is convenient in the way that milk powder and sugar are already mixed. Essentially, the difference between the two comes down to personal preference. Both products have the same slimming properties.

Green Coffee contains leptin. What is this and what does it do?
A hormone produced by fat cells, leptin is a hormone. This hormone is responsible for the body's response to starvation. Essentially, the human brain needs to determine the level of leptin to work out how much fat should be kept in reserve and therefore, metabolic speed. Obesity results when the brain does not correctly sense the leptin hormone level with the result being that metabolism is slow and fat stores increase. As a leptin slimming product, the coffee helps to maintain the body's leptin balance and redress leptin problems (that may come as a result of overeating, stress and sedentary behaviours).

How often should it be consumed?
It is recommended that Green Coffee be taken once per day and, should be consumed either just before or just after breakfast. It is certainly not recommended that a 'double dose' be taken.

Is it wise to drink normal tea or coffee as well as Green Coffee?
It is perfectly fine to drink normal tea and coffee while drinking Green Coffee. Interestingly, many people report that they feel less inclined or less of a desire to drink as much caffeinated coffee or tea as they did previous to drinking this kind of coffee.

Does it affect prescription medication?
Before consuming Green Coffee or any weight loss program at all, it is vital that a health professional be consulted. This coffee is designed to aid weight loss; its purpose is not to treat, cure or prevent any disease.

How does it interact with diet and exercise?
Green Coffee is renowned for its slimming properties and benefit for weight loss. Many people report great results while taking the coffee but consumption of a healthy diet and participation in regular exercise of at least moderate intensity can only increase and enhance*the results that can be achieved.

The coffee can certainly assist people wanting to lose weight. The science behind this product is such that it may be effective in helping to correct the body's leptin imbalance and improve overall metabolic functioning. Of course, the advice of a health professional should be sought before embarking on any weight loss program or consumption of any weight loss product.

By the way, do you want to learn more about health and fitness? If so, I suggest you check green coffee and green coffee 800.